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Final Report of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Top Predators Project

BCLME Top Predators Project

Full publication in PDf format (48MB) available here.

Indivual chapters are available in PDf format from links below.

Executive summary

  • Chapter 1 Executive summary. BCLME Top Predators Project Steering Committee

Introductory chapters

  • Chapter 2 Introduction. BCLME Top Predators Project Steering Committee
  • Chapter 3 Objectives for an ecosystem monitoring programme in the BCLME based on land-breeding top predators. BCLME Top Predators Project Steering Committee

Collation of time series

  • Chapter 4 Time series of data for Cape Fur Seals in the BCLME. SP Kirkman
  • Chapter 5 Report on the availability and quality of seabird information in Namibia and South Africa. J Kemper and RJM Crawford

Cape Fur Seal

  • Chapter 6 Making sense of censuses and dealing with missing data: trends in pup counts of Cape Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus for the period 1972-2004. SP Kirkman, WH Oosthuizen, MA Meÿer, PGH Kotze, J-P Roux, LG Underhill
  • Chapter 7 Ecological responses of Cape Fur Seals in South Africa to temporal shifts in pelagic prey availability. SP Kirkman, WH Oosthuizen, MA Meÿer, PGH Kotze, M Boucher, LG Underhill

African Penguin

  • Chapter 8 The African Penguin Sphensiscus demersus : population estimates, trends, adult survival and age structure from molt and nest counts. J Kemper, J-P Roux, PA Bartlett, YJ Chesselet, J-A Delport, JAC James, R Jones, LG Underhill, N-N Uhongora, S Wepener
  • Chapter 9 Estimating African Penguin population size: a comparison of census techniques. J Kemper
  • Chapter 10 Regionally coherent trends in colonies of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus in the Western Cape, South Africa, 1987-2005. LG Underhill, RJM Crawford, AC Wolfaardt, PA Whittington, BM Dyer, TM Leshoro, M Ruthenburg, L Upfold, J Visagie
  • Chapter 11 Breeding patterns and factors influencing breeding success of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus in Namibia. J Kemper, LG Underhill, J-P Roux, PA Bartlett, YJ Chesselet, JAC James, R Jones, N-N Uhongora, S Wepener
  • Chapter 12 Artificial burrows for African penguins on Halifax Island, Namibia: do they improve breeding success? J Kemper, LG Underhill, J-P Roux
  • Chapter 13 The influence of food availability on breeding success of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Robben Island, South Africa. RJM Crawford, P Barham, LG Underhill, LJ Shannon, JC Coetzee, BM Dyer, TM Leshoro, L Upfold
  • Chapter 14 Effect of age and breeding status on molt phenology of adult African Penguins Spheniscus demersus in Namibia. J Kemper, J-P Roux, LG Underhill
  • Chapter 15 Energy budget of African Penguin Spheniscus demersus chicks. S Bouwhuis, GH Visser, LG Underhill

Great White Pelican

  • Chapter 16 Is predation on seabirds a new foraging behaviour for Great White Pelicans? History, foraging strategies and prey defensive responses. M de Ponte Machado

Cape Gannet

  • Chapter 17 Trends in numbers of Cape Gannets (Morus capensis), 1956/1957-2005/2006, with a consideration of the influence of food and other factors. RJM Crawford, BL Dundee, BM Dyer, NTW Klages, MA Meÿer, L Upfold
  • Chapter 18 Breeding in a dynamic system: intra- and inter-seasonal variability in foraging behaviour and chick growth of Cape Gannets. RHE Mullers, RA Navarro RA, LG Underhill LG, GH Visser

Cormorants

  • Chapter 19 Trends in numbers of Cape Cormorants (Phalacrocorax capensis) over a 50-year period, 1956/57-2006/07. RJM Crawford, BM Dyer, J Kemper, RE Simmons, L Upfold, F vaz Velho
  • Chapter 20 Trends in numbers of three cormorants Phalacrocorax spp. breeding in South Africa's Western Cape Province. RJM Crawford

Kelp Gull

  • Chapter 21 The influence of culling, predation and food on Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus off western South Africa. RJM Crawford, LG Underhill, R Altwegg, BM Dyer, L Upfold
  • Chapter 22 Geographic variation in reproduction and survival of Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus vetula in southern Africa. R Altwegg, RJM Crawford, LG Underhill, AP Martin, PA Whittington
  • Chapter 23 Prefledging energetics of Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus vetula) chicks in a warm environment. GH Visser, T Bakker, KM Tjørve, LG Underhill
  • Chapter 24 Primary moult of the Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus vetula in the Western Cape, South Africa. VL Ward, HD Oschadleus, LG Underhill

Other seabirds

  • Chapter 25 Population estimates and trends of seabird species breeding in Namibia. J Kemper
  • Chapter 26 Trends in numbers of Leach's Storm Petrel, Hartlaub's Gull and Swift and Roseate Terns breeding in South Africa. RJM Crawford, PA Whittington, BM Dyer, L Upfold

Colonial waterbirds

  • Chapter 27 The development of the heronry on Robben Island, Western Cape, South Africa, 1980-2005. LG Underhill, RJM Crawford, DM Harebottle, KMC Tjørve

Turtles

  • Chapter 28 Brief report on the status of turtles in Angola. M Morais

Influence of environment and fish stocks on trends in top predators

  • Chapter 29 Food, fishing and seabirds in the Benguela upwelling system. RJM Crawford
  • Chapter 30 Influences of the abundance and distribution of prey on African Penguins Spheniscus demersus off western South Africa. RJM Crawford, LG Underhill, JC Coetzee, T Fairweather, LJ Shannon, AC Wolfaardt
  • Chapter 31 Implications for seabirds of an unfavourable, long-term change in the distribution of prey: a South African experience. RJM Crawford, T Fairweather, LG Underhill, AC Wolfaardt
  • Chapter 32 An altered carrying capacity of the Benguela upwelling system for African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus). RJM Crawford, LG Underhill, L Upfold, BM Dyer
  • Chapter 33 The efficacy of hand-rearing penguin chicks: evidence from African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) orphaned in the Treasure oil spill in 2000. PJ Barham, LG Underhill, RJM Crawford, R Altwegg, TM Leshoro, DA Bolton, BM Dyer, L Upfold
  • Chapter 34 Impact of predation by Cape Fur Seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus on Cape Gannets Morus capensis at Malgas Island, Western Cape, South Africa. AB Makhado, RJM Crawford, LG Underhill
  • Chapter 35 Management of avian cholera Pasteurella multocida outbreaks on Dyer Island, South Africa, 2002-2005. LJ Waller, LG Underhill

Predators as indicators

  • Chapter 36 Using a top predator to monitor a fish resource: juvenile Cape hake (Merluccius capensis) early growth parameters, birth date estimates and recruitment index: the 2005 cohort. J-P Roux
  • Chapter 37 Can seal diet predict future catches of commercial prey? S Mecenero, J-O Krakstad, J-P Roux, LG Underhill
  • Chapter 38 Indexing the availability of anchovy and sardine to seabird predators in the southern Benguela ecosystem. LG Underhill, RJM Crawford

Surveys of southern Angola

  • Chapter 39 Report on top-predator survey of southern Angola including Ilha dos Tigres, 20-29 November 2005. BM Dyer
  • Chapter 40 The first aerial survey of Cape Fur Seal numbers at Baia dos Tigres, southern Angola. MA Mëyer
  • Chapter 41 Seabirds and marine mammals distributions and patterns of abundance. J-P Roux, BL Dundee, J da Silva

The status of seals and seabirds in the BCLME

  • Chapter 42 Revision of the conservation status of seabirds and seals breeding in the Benguela Ecosystem. J Kemper, LG Underhill, RJM Crawford, SP Kirkman

Comparison of seabirds in the Benguela and the Humboldt LMEs

  • Chapter 43 Comparison of assemblages and some life-history traits of seabirds in the Humboldt and Benguela systems. RJM Crawford, E Goya, J-P Roux, CB Zavalaga

Capacity building

  • Chapter 44 Collation of training inputs undertaken within the BCLME Top Predators Project. LG Underhill
  • Chapter 45 Time Series Analysis Course, 24-26 May 2005, Lüderitz, Namibia. J Kemper

Monitoring recommendations

  • Chapter 46 Recommendations for a regional monitoring programme for Cape Fur Seals in the BCLME. SP Kirkman
  • Chapter 47 Monitoring seabirds in the BCLME: monitoring objectives, priorities and recommendations. J Kemper

Scientific output

Annex 1

Annex 2

  • Annex 2 Manual of methods for monitoring Cape fur seals in the BCLME. SP Kirkman (editor). Annex 2 cover

Annex 3

Recommended citation: S.P. Kirkman (ed.) 2007. Final Report of the BCLME (Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem) Project on Top Predators as Biological Indicators of Ecosystem Change in the BCLME. Avian Demography Unit, Cape Town.

Some chapters in this report have been published previously and are reproduced here with the permission of the journal publishers. When citing these previously published papers (i.e. chapters 10, 13, 17, 32, 34, 35 and 43) please use the original publication details provided in the table of contents.